The Nile River
The Nile River
The Nile river, is  the longest river in the world. From Lake Victoria in E central Africa, it flows generally north  through Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea, for a distance of 5584 km.
  • From its remotest headstream, the Luvironza River. in Burundi, the river is 6671 km long. It flows westwards through the mountains of Burundi until it joins another Nile tributary the Kagera. This is the largest and longest of the many rivers and streams that empty into Victoria Nyanza. The one river that flows out of Victoria Nyanza is the White Nile.

  • The Kagera (Tanzania) follows the boundary of Rwanda northwards, turns along the boundary of Uganda, and drains into Lake Victoria. On leaving Lake Victoria at the site of the now-submerged Ripon Falls, the Nile rushes for 483 km between high rocky walls and over rapids and cataracts, at first north west and then west (Murchison Falls NP) until it enters Lake Albert.

  • The one river that flows out of Victoria Nyanza is the White Nile.

  • The section between the two lakes is called the Victoria Nile. The river leaves the north end of Lake Albert as the Albert Nile, flows through northern Uganda, and at the Sudan border becomes the Bahr al-Jabal. At its junction with the Bahr al-Ghazal, the river becomes the Bahr al-Abyad, or the White Nile. Various tributaries flow through the Bahr al-Ghazal district.

  • At Khartoum the White Nile is joined by the Blue Nile, or Bahr al-Azraq. These are so named because of the color of the water. The Blue Nile, 1529 km long, gathers its volume mainly from Lake Tana, in the Ethiopian Highlands; it is known here as the Abbai.

  • The Blue Nile, which contributes about two-thirds of the water of the Nile, is known as the Abbai in Ethiopia, where it, in part, flows through a deep gorge. The river is dammed for irrigation and hydroelectricity production in Sudan. The Blue Nile  means in Arab. al-Bahr al-Azraq, North East Africa, about 1370 km long. It rises at an altitude of about 1830 m in the region of Lake Tana, north west Ethiopia, flows South and then West in Ethiopia, and follows a north western course in Sudan before merging, at Khartoum, with the White Nile to form the Nile proper.

  • From Khartoum the Nile flows NE; 322 km (200 mi) below that city, it is joined by the Atabarah (Atbara) R. The black sediment brought down by this river settles in the Nile delta and makes it very fertile. During its course from the confluence of the Atabarah through the Nubian Desert, the river makes two deep bends. Below Khartoum navigation is rendered dangerous by cataracts, the first occurring N of Khartoum and the sixth near Aswan.

  • The Nile enters the Mediterranean Sea by a delta that separates into the Rosetta and Damietta distributaries. The first dam on the Nile, the Aswan dam, was built in 1902 and heightened in 1936.

Nile Explorers.

Western explorers of the Nile include the British explorers John Hanning Speke, who reached Lake Victoria in 1858 and Ripon Falls in 1862, and Sir Samuel White Baker, who sighted Lake Albert in 1864; a German, Georg August Schweinfurth (1836-1925), who explored (1868-71) the west feeders of the White Nile; and a British-American, Sir Henry Morton Stanley.

In 1875 Stanley sailed around Lake Victoria; in 1889 he traced the Semliki R. and reached Lake Edward and the Ruwenzori Range.

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